HISTORY OF VIDEO GAMES
What are video games? In order to talk about video games, you should first define what games are. According to various definitions and dictionaries, games are kind of activities, which are defined according to certain rules, and playing the game can be with different intent. The intention may be fun, competition, carelessness, distraction, relaxation, learning …
Video games are basically games, which in most cases are used as input the user’s actions, then these actions and the environment is processed by a computer, and the result of processing through video signal delivered to the user back to the video device. Because displaying the results of processing over video devices, called video games. A little simpler definition of video games (which use some dictionaries) would be activity, dealing with manipulation of images that display video device.
DEVELOPMENT OF VIDEO GAMES
Video games are made essentially extremely logical, albeit somewhat and (not) serious. The first video game, which technically is not a video game, came from the need for simulation and forecasting of serious events, but no real consequence. These are the predictions path rocket and try their knockdown. Rockets appeared on the radar, and the user has to try to break them down. It is a video game cathode ray amusement device. The game consisted of a computer which weighed about a ton and the display, which consisted of 12 lamps. By moving the handle, the user is supposed to provide and that moves the light and try to negotiate a different light, his second light ” fled ”.
Since the game is played by strokes, and so refreshed and screen, it was not easy to hit the enemy’s light. This game demonstrates the importance of quantity information that was necessary in order for the user to respond. Most games of this period were pulling games, which had unlimited time between moves. Similar games were Tic-Tac-Toe and Chess.
FIRST VIDEO GAME
First of all video games, was the Tennis for Two. This “game” is actually played on an oscilloscope. Oscilloscope, phenomenal condition at that time (1958) had a very useful elements for the purpose of video games: a basic set of controls with which the user can change the parameters of the basic unit for displaying the results on the basis of parameters that the user has entered. Due to the high prices of computers at that time, as well as devices that are able to display video signal in “real time”, the development of hardware and software is mainly the preserve of large universities and the army, which had the resources to provide such devices, as well as brains would be dealt with. A popular trend in universities were algorithmic tasks that dealt with issues of artificial intelligence and solving mathematical problems, which required a video presentation of their solutions. This need for a presentation video solutions has led to increased development of video devices. Video devices are getting better, with higher resolution and that they are able to demonstrate a higher number of dots on the screen, which began to create the need for mapping the screen. Organizing points, their grouping, and their behavior is being handled the interesting problem for Steve Russel’s. It was in 1961 managed to make a model of the behavior of certain points, and the ability of users to anticipate and intercept presented in the form of puzzles. The user was a group of dots, which aimed to fire a missile (also a group of dots, which occurs first), and attempts to topple the alien ship (projectile affects a third group of points). It is the game Spacewar.
THE POPULARIZATION OF PC GAMES
Further development of devices for displaying video signals, leads to further improvements, as well as a decline in their prices. 1971, Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney made a real computer that can run only one game and has an integrated monitor. The game is a copy of the game Spacewar, only done with much more detail and generally better quality. It is a game Computer Space, which is the first game that was commercially available. For this product, a new type of device, “Arcade”, which were initially had only one game on it, and later had a removable memory in which they could be entered and deleted games. A few years later out similar devices, which use TV for your output video signal. Because they are a panel, which will include control and input parameters required to start a game, these devices are named Console (Console, as Electrical console-plate for machine control). Due to the increasing popularity of the TV, the fall in its price, and the general growth of the availability, home consoles are starting to be more accessible to more people, and therefore video games. This created all the prerequisites for the rapid development of video games.
In 1980’s, technology advances enough to allow the expansion of video games. Games get more colors, better sound, music in some cases. Games that were made by programmers who have developed artistic ratio, starting to quality stand out from other games. The ability to monetize this talent and products, and the further formation of the market, led to the creation of large companies such as Atari, Nintendo, Sega. By grouping talent, with the same goal, led to a sharp increase in the quality of games. Within a few years, due to competition, companies engaged in making video games, starting to “borrow” ideas from each other, with constant attempts to push the boundaries. This has led so far, the games have begun to some extent dictated by the development of hardware, which is directly influenced by the quality of the games so that in just 10 years, there has been little change games, style of presentation, gameplay modes and genres own game.
A large number of games proved to be very popular. They managed to start the series, some of which last to this day. Some of them are The Legend of Zelda, Arkanoid, Final Fantasy, Street Fighter, Metroid, Prince of Persia, Dragon Quest, Mega Man, SimCity, Castlevania, Ultima, Wizardry, Castle Wolfenstein, Frogger, Pacman …
THE EMERGENCE OF 3D
End of the 1980’s, due to the excessive frequency of borrowing of ideas between companies, there is a large market saturation. Games are very similar, so often, that were called clones. As soon as it appears some original ideas, will quickly reach its copy by another company, where the focus shifted from research and inventing new things to “borrow” from someone who has already done it.
In parallel with commercial games, which were mainly focused on the 2D view (side-scrolling, top-down) develops and another type of games, famed as the FPS (First Person Shooter). Duck Hunt (top figure, first from right), represents one of the few attempts FPS at that time. Thanks to the success of the Duck Hunt achieved (as well as side-scroll from FPS perspective), trying to be the granting of freedom of movement. Wolfenstein 3D represents the first such commercially successful game, and soon after him and Doom. Although the movement is very limited (the player moves through the matrix and can be seen only in 2 directions or 4 directions), this area has been presented a real revolution. Only a year later, appears to play Doom, who manages to that user total freedom of movement, and through the mouse, total freedom target.
3D has also made several other interesting news: Less used sprites (thumbnails), and more and more 3D models. The sound begins to be more important, and the number of channels. We begin to distinguish the sound whether the opponent is behind us, left or right. Over time there is a development in this field, which starts all over to be used.
The very graphic, and the need for better texture (the image that sticks to a flat surface of the object), a large number of objects, precise 3D models, beginning to change the focus in the process of making games with the programming aspect of the aspect of content creation. The appearance of the game begins to be more important than how the game is played. This transition, in BEGINNING imperceptible, later becoming very important. Within a few years, games have managed to cross the path of a fixed perspective, with a black background, over FPS games to the end, flight simulator, where the player had total freedom of movement, crossing the vast distance, played with more players in the network of non-local nature, and was able to hear if there is a failure before it “sensors” detected.
End of the 1990s and beginning of 2000s
Because of the focus on the quality of the presentation, as well as the marketing of games, making games is becoming more expensive. At the same time, the game is less different, because they have very similar mechanics, given that too many newspapers represent a risk for investors. One of the most important newspapers is an attempt forcing RPG elements with the open world in several genres, with varying degrees of success. This attention leads to new investments that exploit this phenomenon, making expansion of the system based on it. It is about focusing on the comparison of results and mutual competition, which is based on the further development of the system:
- Tournaments and sport’s, which represents direct competition two or more players,
- Ladders, and comparing the success of players who did not have to interact with each other,
- System development prize in games, respectively, indirect comparison of the success of players,
- Division games in two segments, PvE and PvP, respectively, Player vs. Environment and Player vs. Player.
During this period there is a great development HHD (handheld devices) and mobile devices, which in turn allows small programming companies to compete with large companies and bring the necessary freshness in the form of new ideas. This need was so pronounced that even for large platforms such as PC, or some of the popular console, began to appear the company, who asked for the financing of the consumer. Thus arose the concept of CrowFounding or Kickstarter. Usually small and unknown companies, which do not have a contract with a publisher (or Indy – Independent), are trying to implement their projects in this way. The main reason is they have a lot more freedom in the realization of their project when they are not related to the large publisher or investor.