TERM OF THE SOFTWARE
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Two basic types of software are:
System software – programs that are used to directly manage the physical work computers or hardware. This software allows a user interaction software with hardware. The modern name for the system software is the operating system. Some theorists believe Informatics compiler and other tools for software development work of the system software.
User software – programs designed to end users computer system. And these are the programs with which users of the processed data.
The execution of software or software by the user computer system today usually involves loading a user’s software and data from the hard disk, interactive data processing, and storage of data on the hard drive. In the past, rather than the hard drive used magnetic tapes or some other type of permanent memory.
The computer during execution software monitors the pre-determined set of commands to allow the user to analyze data in an appropriate manner.
OPERATING SYSTEM – DEFINITION AND FUNCTIONS
Operating system (hereinafter OS) combines disparate parts of your computer into a harmonious whole and hides from the user details of how these parts that are not essential to the use of computers.
OS works as follows:
Manages programs, data, and parts of which are comprised computer (processor, controller, working memory), with the aim that they should be used as expedient
Provides accessible working environment for the end-user computer
In general terms, the operating system can be defined as a set of programs that manage computer system resources and provides the interface to the user.
The first function of the OS is a computer resource management (resource management). The term resource we mean all that is needed to operate the program. Resources can be hardware (processor, memory, I / O devices) and software (programs, data files). The task OS that takes into account the resources of computers
to meet the needs of the program, to monitor the program uses what resources etc.
In short, the OS is a collection of system programs that mediate between computer users PC hardware and the goal is to:
Executes user programs and facilitates the resolution of user problems
Use of computer system do more suitable for users
Enable more efficient utilization of computer hardware
OS consists of several relatively independent entities. Each brand has its own computer operating systems, it is difficult to make the general structure of OS. A hierarchical model of OS is composed of levels.
The hierarchical model has the following meaning:
the observed level OS can request service only from its lower
level, and not from higher. The lowest layer is known as the core of the OS (kernel).
Due to the size of OS relations and working memory, most of the OS does not fit in RAM. Therefore, the memory still is only the most important parts of the OS, so-called resident parts, which activate and execute user programs, allocated memory, and files and perform I / O operations.
Resident part of the OS must support mechanism stops because it’s based on the multi-operation. Part of the OS, which must always be in memory usually is referred to as the core or kernel. Functions that are used by all levels must be placed in the core of the OS. Other parts are inserted into memory when needed and expelled when no longer needed.
TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
There are many divisions OS based on various criteria: the number of users and/or processes, according to the mode of processing operations, according to the distribution of processing power and other resources, according to the purpose and functional characteristics.
CLASSIFICATION BY NUMBER OF USERS AND PROCESS
According to many users, the operating systems are divided into:
The first single user (single-user)
Second multi-user (multi-user)
Single-user systems provide the virtual machine for a single user. These are Computer systems adapted for one function or it comes to lower-cost configuration and type micro-computers. That characterizes them inexpensive hardware, solid accompanying software, a simple file system, a simple I / O system.
Multi-user systems are quality OS that requires stronger hardware configuration.
A typical multi-user OS is UNIX, which provides simultaneous access to multiple users simultaneously, with users accessing the system via a special terminal.
Based on the number of simultaneous activities ie. To the number of processes that can be executed in parallel or similar, operating systems can be divided into:
Single-tasking (Single process)
Based on a combination of criteria OS can be distinguished in three types of operating systems:
The first single-process (single user, single tasking) such as MS-DOS
The second single-user multitasking (single-user, multi-tasking), such as OS / 2 and MS Windows 3.1 / 9x / Me
The third multi-user multitasking (multiuser, multitasking) such as UNIX, or conditionally can be accepted and MS Windows 2000 / XP / 2003 if you are enabling terminal services.
The programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of machines, especially computers.
Programming languages are defined via syntactic and semantic rules that respectively describe their structure and meaning. Many programming languages have some form of written specification of their syntax and semantics, and some are defined only through the official implementation.
Programming languages are used to facilitate communication with a computer during the organization and manipulation of information, but also to accurately express algorithms. Some authors restrict the term “programming language” only the languages that can express all possible algorithms, and sometimes use the term “computer language”, referring to the more limited artificial languages.
In the meantime, he created thousands of programming languages, and new ones are created every year.
The programming language is any of the artificial languages that it is possible to give detailed instructions to a computer. These instructions can be executed directly when the built-in computer in a special format specified by brand, so-called. machine language, after a simple process of replacing expressed in the appropriate assembly language, or after converting from a higher level language.
Machine and assembly language are low levels requiring from developers to devote himself to the management of all matters relating to safeguarding data and operations on them. At the other end are high-level languages, which are closer to natural language and liberate programmers worry about these things, too readable and much easier to write programs.